1. What role did religion play in ancient Roman society, and how did it change over time?
  2. How did ancient Romans view gender and sexuality, and how did this shape their social and political institutions?
  3. What was the relationship between ancient Rome and the surrounding regions, such as Greece, Carthage, and the Germanic tribes?
  4. How did ancient Roman architecture reflect the values and aspirations of the empire, and what innovations did they introduce in this field? How did ancient Roman architecture and urban planning shape the development of cities, and what were the most iconic structures and landmarks?
  5. What were the major political, economic, and social factors that led to the decline and fall of the Roman Empire in the West?
  6. What was the impact of slavery on ancient Roman society, and how did this institution evolve over time?
  7. How did ancient Roman literature and philosophy contribute to the development of Western thought and culture, and what were some of its most notable works?
  8. What were the major military campaigns and conquests of ancient Rome, and how did they shape the empire’s expansion and decline?
  9. How did ancient Roman technology and engineering innovations, such as aqueducts, roads, and public buildings, influence later civilizations?
  10. How did ancient Roman law and governance systems, such as the Twelve Tables, the Senate, and the imperial administration, shape the development of modern political institutions and legal systems?
  11. How did ancient Roman medicine and healthcare practices compare to those of other civilizations, and what were the most notable advancements and discoveries?
  12. What was the role of entertainment in ancient Roman society, and how did it evolve over time?
  13. How did ancient Roman trade and commerce function, and what were the most valuable and in-demand goods and resources?
  14. What was the significance of Julius Caesar’s reign and his assassination, and how did it lead to the end of the Roman Republic?
  15. What was the impact of the Punic Wars on ancient Rome, and how did they shape the course of Western history?
  16. How did Augustus establish the Roman Empire, and what were his major achievements as the first emperor?
  17. What were the key characteristics and policies of Emperor Trajan, and how did he expand the empire to its greatest territorial extent?
  18. How did Emperor Hadrian contribute to the consolidation and fortification of the Roman Empire, particularly through his architectural projects?
  19. What was the impact of Emperor Marcus Aurelius on Roman society and philosophy, as evidenced by his famous work “Meditations”?
  20. How did Emperor Constantine influence the course of Roman history, particularly with his conversion to Christianity and the establishment of Constantinople?
  21. What were the major reforms and accomplishments of Emperor Justinian during the Byzantine Empire, including his codification of Roman law?
  22. How did the reign of Emperor Nero contribute to the decline and instability of the Roman Empire, particularly through his controversial policies and actions?
  23. What was the significance of Emperor Diocletian’s administrative reforms, such as the establishment of the Tetrarchy, in addressing the challenges faced by the empire?
  24. How did Emperor Theodosius I impact the religious landscape of the Roman Empire, particularly with his declaration of Christianity as the state religion?
  25. How did Emperor Julian the Apostate’s attempt to revive traditional Roman religion and philosophy influence the religious dynamics of the empire during the Christianization process?
  26. Who was Cicero and what role did he play in ancient Rome?
  27. What were Cicero’s main political beliefs and how did he express them in his speeches and writings?
  28. How did Cicero’s ideas on philosophy and ethics influence his political career and decisions?
  29. What were some of Cicero’s most famous speeches and how did they impact Roman society and politics?
  30. What was Cicero’s relationship with Julius Caesar, and how did it change over time?
  31. What was Cicero’s role in the Roman Republic’s struggle against the Catiline conspiracy, and how did he shape public opinion during this time?
  32. How did Cicero’s exile from Rome affect his political career and personal life, and how did he respond to this setback?
  33. What were Cicero’s views on the concept of Roman citizenship, and how did he defend the rights of citizens during his time in politics?
  34. How did Cicero’s writing style and rhetoric influence later writers and thinkers, both in ancient Rome and beyond?
  35. What was Cicero’s legacy in Roman history and how is he remembered today?

NOTE: These questions delve into specific emperors of ancient Rome and their contributions, policies, and influence on the empire. They require a deeper understanding of Roman history and the dynamics of power during different periods.

The following is the useful text to help your students answer the questions above:

Ancient Rome: A Comprehensive Overview

Ancient Rome was one of the greatest empires in world history, known for its unparalleled achievements in governance, law, engineering, art, and culture. In this article, we will explore some of the most significant aspects of ancient Roman society, from its religious beliefs and gender norms to its military campaigns and architectural innovations.

Religion played a crucial role in ancient Roman society, with the Romans worshipping a diverse pantheon of gods and goddesses. The Roman religion evolved over time, with the incorporation of foreign cults and the eventual adoption of Christianity as the state religion. This shift had a profound impact on Roman society, shaping its cultural and political institutions in ways that would endure for centuries.

Gender and sexuality were also important aspects of Roman society, with strict norms and expectations governing the roles and behaviors of men and women. While the Roman elite were known for their decadent lifestyles and sexual excesses, the majority of Romans adhered to traditional family values and patriarchal structures.

Ancient Rome was also renowned for its military conquests and territorial expansion, with Rome’s power and influence stretching across much of Europe, North Africa, and the Middle East. The Punic Wars with Carthage, the conquest of Greece, and the suppression of the Germanic tribes were among the most significant military campaigns in Roman history.

Architectural innovation was another hallmark of ancient Roman civilization, with the Romans pioneering new techniques and designs that would influence architecture for centuries to come. The Colosseum, the Pantheon, and the aqueducts are just a few examples of the impressive feats of engineering and design that the Romans accomplished.

The decline and fall of the Western Roman Empire was a complex process that was influenced by a wide range of factors, including political corruption, economic instability, military overextension, and cultural decline. The rise of Christianity, the barbarian invasions, and the eventual collapse of the Roman state were all part of this tumultuous period of history.

Slavery was also a defining feature of ancient Roman society, with millions of enslaved individuals working in every sector of the economy. While the conditions of slavery varied, with some slaves enjoying significant privileges and opportunities, slavery was nonetheless a brutal and dehumanizing institution that had a profound impact on Roman society.

Literature and philosophy were also important aspects of Roman culture, with writers and thinkers such as Cicero, Virgil, and Seneca producing works that would have a lasting impact on Western thought and culture. Their writings dealt with a wide range of topics, from morality and ethics to politics and religion.


Cicero is one of the most celebrated orators and statesmen of ancient Rome. He was born in 106 BC in Arpinum, Italy, and became known for his eloquent speeches, legal expertise, and political influence.

As a lawyer, Cicero defended various clients in high-profile cases, including Roman governors accused of corruption and citizens charged with treason. His defense of Roscius, a man falsely accused of murder, is considered a masterpiece of legal oratory.

Cicero also held several important political positions, including consul, praetor, and senator. He was a prominent member of the Roman Republic’s political elite and advocated for the preservation of traditional Roman values and institutions.

In addition to his legal and political career, Cicero was a prolific writer and philosopher. He composed numerous speeches, letters, and treatises on a wide range of topics, including ethics, politics, and rhetoric.

Cicero’s writings on rhetoric and oratory continue to be studied and admired by scholars today. He believed that the art of persuasion should be based on reason and logic, rather than emotional appeals. Cicero emphasized the importance of clarity, elegance, and structure in public speaking, and his techniques continue to influence modern rhetoric.

Cicero’s political views were informed by his commitment to the principles of Roman republicanism. He was a strong opponent of autocracy and believed that political power should be shared among the people. He famously exposed the conspiracy of Catiline, a would-be dictator, and called for his execution as a threat to the Roman Republic.

Despite his many accomplishments, Cicero’s career was not without controversy. He was exiled from Rome for a period and faced political opposition from rival factions. Nevertheless, his legacy as a skilled orator, thoughtful philosopher, and committed defender of the Roman Republic continues to inspire scholars and students today.

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